A Palestinian uprising – or intifada – erupts, bringing clashes and protests in the West Bank, Gaza and Israel.
The unrest continues on and off for years, with many lives lost on both sides.
The first of two pacts, known as the Oslo accords, is signed between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), setting out a peace process.
Left unresolved, however, were key issues such as Israeli settlements in the West Bank and the status of Jerusalem, which is viewed by the Palestinians as the capital of any future state, meaning peace was still not achieved.
Another Palestinian intifada begins after a visit by right-wing Israeli political figure Ariel Sharon to a compound in Jerusalem venerated in Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
Clashes and violence continue until 2005, leaving hundreds dead on both sides.
The Palestinian militant group Hamas wins elections in Gaza, leading to political strains with the more moderate Fatah party controlling the West Bank.