So far China has shown a desire to avoid escalation. For example, the unreliable entitites list was announced in 2019, but Chinese officials have yet to put it into effect or name any targets. Instead, they have focused on tit-for-tat responses with little tangible effect, such as visa and travel bans for foreign officials with few ties to China. Targets include former U.S. Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross and others over a Biden administration warning about doing business in Hong Kong, and former Secretary of State Michael Pompeo and other members of President Donald Trump’s administration over their China policy. Companies including Lockheed Martin Corp. and Boeing Co.’s defense unit were hit with unspecified sanctions for selling arms to Taiwan, which China claims as its territory. Senators Marco Rubio and Ted Cruz as well as nongovernmental organizations and think tanks such as Human Rights Watch and the Mercator Institute for China Studies were sanctioned over human rights issues. In some of these cases, Beijing explicitly prohibited Chinese citizens and institutions from doing business or having exchanges with sanctioned entities.